The Detroit Church Project is dedicated to preserving records and memories from the religious history of one of the United State's oldest and most diverse cities, focusing particularly on the African-American churches that were created during the 1930's and 1940's in the wake of the Great Migration.

The Project is currently in the process of accumulating:


    • A collection of digitized historical documents (sermons, bulletins, pamphlets, posters, etc.) from a variety of Churches in Detroit


    • A series of histories of individual churches in Detroit


    • Oral interviews of parishioners of Detroit congregations

The ultimate goal of the project is to gain a perspective on the history of Detroit, with both its successes and failures, through the churches that often provided a framework for its neighborhoods and communities. Through understanding the history of these churches we aim to enrich our understanding of the history of Detroit; through engaging the congregations of these churches we aim to relate to the greater community of the Detroit; through preserving the documents and memories of these churches we aim to safeguard the rich historical legacy of Detroit.

The Bracero History Archive collects and makes available the oral histories and artifacts pertaining to the Bracero program, a guest worker initiative that spanned the years 1942-1964. Millions of Mexican agricultural workers crossed the border under the program to work in more than half of the states in America.

The Bracero Program, which brought millions of Mexican guest workers to the United States, ended more than four decades ago. Current debates about immigration policy-including discussions about a new guest worker program-have put the program back in the news and made it all the more important to understand this chapter of American history. Yet while top U.S. and Mexican officials re- examine the Bracero Program as a possible model, most Americans know very little about the program, the nation's largest experiment with guest workers. Indeed, until very recently, this important story has been inadequately documented and studied, even by scholars.

The Bracero Program grew out of a series of bi-lateral agreements between Mexico and the United States that allowed millions of Mexican men to come to the United States to work on, short-term, primarily agricultural labor contracts. From 1942 to 1964, 4.6 million contracts were signed, with many individuals returning several times on different contracts, making it the largest U.S. contract labor program. An examination of the images, stories, documents and artifacts of the Bracero Program contributes to our understanding of the lives of migrant workers in Mexico and the United States, as well as our knowledge of, immigration, citizenship, nationalism, agriculture, labor practices, race relations, gender, sexuality, the family, visual culture, and the Cold War era.

The Bracero Program was created by executive order in 1942 because many growers argued that World War II would bring labor shortages to low-paying agricultural jobs. On August 4, 1942 the United States concluded a temporary intergovernmental agreement for the use of Mexican agricultural labor on United States farms (officially referred to as the Mexican Farm Labor Program), and the influx of legal temporary Mexican workers began. But the program lasted much longer than anticipated. In 1951, after nearly a decade in existence, concerns about production and the U.S. entry into the Korean conflict led Congress to formalize the Bracero Program with Public Law 78.

The Bracero Program was controversial in its time. Mexican nationals, desperate for work, were willing to take arduous jobs at wages scorned by most Americans. Farm workers already living in the United States worried that braceros would compete for jobs and lower wages. In theory, the Bracero Program had safeguards to protect both Mexican and domestic workers for example, guaranteed payment of at least the prevailing area wage received by native workers; employment for three-fourths of the contract period; adequate, sanitary, and free housing; decent meals at reasonable prices; occupational insurance at employer's expense; and free transportation back to Mexico at the end of the contract. Employers were supposed to hire braceros only in areas of certified domestic labor shortage, and were not to use them as strikebreakers. In practice, they ignored many of these rules and Mexican and native workers suffered while growers benefited from plentiful, cheap, labor. Between the 1940s and mid 1950s, farm wages dropped sharply as a percentage of manufacturing wages, a result in part of the use of braceros and undocumented laborers who lacked full rights in American society.

The Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media (CHNM) at George Mason University received funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities to createMaking the History of 1989.

Contact Information
Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media
George Mason University
4400 University Drive, MSN 1E7
Fairfax, VA 22030

Principal Investigator T. Mills Kelly

Project Editor, Tom Rushford

Project Manager, Katherine Gustin


Cold War International History Project of the Woodrow Wilson Center
German Historical Institute, Washington, D.C.
National Czech and Slovak Museum & Library, Cedar Rapids, IA.
National Security Archive
University of Maryland-Baltimore County, Special Collections
Wende Museum, Culver City, CA


Few images from the second half of the twentieth century endure as vividly as the jubilant crowds atop the Berlin Wall in 1989, seemingly tearing down the Cold War with their hammers, hands, and hopes. Just as memorable was the sight of hundreds of thousands of people filling Wenceslaus Square in Prague, chanting “Truth Will Prevail” as the communist regime crumbled before their eyes. These joyful images compete in popular memory with equally powerful but horrific scenes: the Romanian President, Nicolae Ceausescu, and his wife executed on live television on Christmas morning, or emaciated Bosnians peering out from behind prison camp wire following the outbreak of civil war in Yugoslavia. As rapid as it was unexpected, the collapse of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the period of transition that followed brought the twentieth century and the Cold War to a close in way few expected. Those who lived through those days will never forget the sense of seeing “history in the making.”

Making the History of 1989 materials were developed because teachers and their students have little access to vivid historical documents in English that convey the epochal events of 1989. Project materials utilize recent advances in our understanding of how historical learning takes place, including complex interaction with sources, recursive reading, and skills used by historians.

Making the History of 1989 has three key features: a substantial collection of high quality primary sources; a set of multimedia interviews that make visible the processes by which historians transform events and sources into historical narratives; and lesson plans and document based questions provide historical context, tools, and strategies for teaching the history of 1989 with primary sources in ways that make “history making” visible and vivid. - верный адрес

The Early Americas Digital Archive (EADA) is a collection of electronic texts and links to texts originally written in or about the Americas from 1492 to approximately 1820. Open to the public for research and teaching purposes, EADA is published and supported by the Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities (MITH) under the general editorship of Professor Ralph Bauer, at the University of Maryland at College Park. Intended as a long-term and inter-disciplinary project in progress committed to exploring the intersections between traditional humanities research and digital technologies, it invites scholars from all disciplines to submit their editions of early American texts for publication on this site. Texts may be submitted with or without introductions and annotations, as fully marked-up .xml documents or as "plain-text" files. Full credit will be given to contributing guest editors for their work. For more details, see our "instructions" on how to submit a text and our list of contributing guest editors.

The EADA Database and the "Gateway to Early American Authors on the WEB"

EADA consists of two basic components: a) the EADA Database and b) the "Gateway to Early American Authors on the WEB."

a) In the EADA Database, you can find texts that are housed at EADAitself and that have been encoded using TEI, which makes it possible for you to search for specific terms, such as author, title, and subject, within and across the texts. EADA vouches for the accuracy of the header information as well as for the authenticity and quality of the texts contained in its database, which is continually and gradually expanding. If you do not find the early American text you are looking for in the EADAdatabase, you may also consult the

b) "Gateway to Early American Authors on the WEB," which allows you to browse a list of early American authors whose texts are available both on sites that others have posted on the World Wide Web as well as texts from this site, the Early Americas Digital Archive. Texts external to the EADA Database cannot be searched with the EADA Search Engine; nor can EADA vouch for the authenticity or quality of any of the texts external to its database and referred to in the Gateway.


In May of 2002, the Society of Early Americanists launched its initiative in Teaching Early Ibero/Anglo American Studies by hosting the first "Early Ibero/Anglo Americanist Summit" in Tucson, Arizona. This event gathered roughly one hundred scholars from various fields and languages in order to use new research examining early American literatures from a hemispheric perspective, to develop a collection of texts, model curricula, and teaching materials that embody a hemispheric approach to the study of the early Americas, and to generate professional and intellectual exchanges among scholars from various fields. For the purpose of this event, the Program Committeeconstructed an electronic anthology as an archival basis for discussion and granted restricted access to Summit Participant. The Maryland Institute of Technology in the Humanities (MITH) generously provided the technological equipment and the server space necessary for the construction of this anthology. This Summit Anthology became the foundation for the present Early Americas Digital Archive (EADA). However, unlike the password protected Summit Anthology, EADA is accessible to the general public for teaching and research purposes.

Why an electronic archive of early American texts?

The foremost advantages of a digital archive are cost efficiency andaccessibility. To date, only a fraction of early American texts is readily available in inexpensive paper-back editions. Typically, those early American texts easily available in print have been selected for canonicity from the point of view of the various later literary-historical narratives that have emerged during the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first centuries. In order to consult texts not readily available in commercial print media, scholars must physically visit archives and libraries or order items through interlibrary loan. Being less dependent on the economic pressures of commercial publishing in print, an on-line archive such asEADA can thus provide the foundation for truly multiple literary-historical narratives. Unlike several digital archives of early American texts already existing on the internet, EADA is offered as a public service free of charge. For this reason, EADA must limit itself to the electronic publication of printed editions that are in the public domain and, thus, available to EADA free of charge. Although in many cases more recent editions of a given text exist in print than the one published digitally atEADA, first priority has been given to keeping EADA free of charge.

The second advantage is searchability. Texts included in EADA have been encoded in Extensible Markup Language (XML), following The Text Encoding Initiative Guidelines (TEI), "an international and interdisciplinary standard that helps libraries, museums, publishers, and individual scholars represent all kinds of literary and linguistic texts for online research and teaching, using an encoding scheme that is maximally expressive and minimally obsolescent."

The TEI provides for very detailed textual encoding to facilitate multi-faceted document retrieval. For example, not only can documents be searched via plain text, but they can be retrieved through a rich scheme of meta-information contained in the headers of each text. ThroughEADA's Search Page texts can be accessed according to genre type (prose, poetry, drama), format (chronicle, diary, etc.), mode (satire, pastoral, etc.), historical period (by 50-year intervals), geographic location (New England, New Spain, Virginia, etc.), as well as by author, title, and subject headings. For example, one might search for "Georgic" "Poetry" about the "Caribbean" published "1750-1800;" for poems written by "Bradstreet, Anne;" or for texts about "Native Americans." For further instructions on searching, please see the Search Page.

Why XML?

Most web pages are created using an encoding language known as HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) which allows viewers to read formatted text using a web browsers. However, all documents in EADAare encoded using XML (Extensible Generalised Markup Language). XML offers opportunities and advantages over both print publication and HTML-encoded text to distribute and store information rich in complexity and ambiguity. The encoding features of the language records information about the content of the text rather than its layout or format. Linguistic features, such as personal and organizational names, titles, and place names are encoded or marked so that they can be easily be retrieved by a search engine. XML has proved to be the best long-term media in which to preserve textual material in digital form. It is non-proprietary, in other words, it is not owned by an individual or corporation, so those working in XML have no fear that one day it might be economically out of the reach of the individual user. It provides for unparalleled textual search, navigation and retrieval facilities. And last, but not least, it is possible to display XML-encoded text over the Internet through HTML, albeit with a loss of considerable functionality. XML, which many feel will replace HTML, will create ideal conditions for the publication of highly structured information on the World Wide Web. For further information on EADA's encoding guidelines, please see theEADA Documentation.

EADA Policy Statement

All texts encoded and published by EADA have either been scanned from sources in the public domain or obtained in digital version as plain text by permission from other internet sites, which are given credit in the header. Subsequently, all texts have been proofed against the original source and marked up in .xml. Line and paragraph numbers contained in the source text are retained. In cases where the source text displays no numbers, numbers are automatically generated to assist the user's orientation in the text. In the header, personal names have been regularized according to the Library of Congress authority files as "Last Name, First Name" for the REG attribute and "First Name Last Name" for the element value. Names have not been regularized in the body of the text. For specifics with regard to individual texts, see the colophon information included in the headers. If texts have been included for which no source could be found in the public domain, permission to publish has been obtained from the copy-right owner. Contributing guest editors are fully credited for their work on our "List of Guest editors page," which contains their name, a paragraph of biographical information, and a link to their works on EADA, as well as in the header of the individual text, which makes their names searchable via the EADASearch Engine. For more details, please see the EADADocumentation.

This website is created by Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement (1951-1968). It is where we tell it like it was, the way we lived it, the way we saw it, the way we still see it. With a few minor exceptions, everything on this site was written, created, or spoken by Movement activists who were direct participants in the events they chronicle.

We intend this site to be a non-commercial educational resource for students, academics, researchers, and people of all kinds who wish to learn more about the Civil Rights Movement from the point of view of those who were part of it, who passionately believed in it, and still do to this day.

The mass media calls it the "Civil Rights Movement," but many of us prefer the term "Freedom Movement" because it was about so much more than just a few narrowly-defined civil rights. The essence of the Freedom Movement was first to defy, and then to overthrow, a century of systemic racial oppression and exploitation across all aspects of society. At heart, the Freedom Movement was a demand for social and political equality, an end to economic injustice, and a fair share of political power for Blacks and other non-whites. Though the Freedom Movement failed to achieve all of these goals, it did decisively and permanently end the "Jim Crow" system of legally-enforced social inequality through segregation. And by winning voting rights for all non-whites it obliterated the main legal mechanism used to restrict American racial minorities to a form of second-class citizenship.

Today, from what you are taught in school, you would think that the Freedom Movement only existed in a few states of the deep South, — but that is not so. The Freedom Movement lived and fought in every state and every city of America, North, South, East, and West. There were some differences between the Southern and Northern wings of the Movement, but those differences were minor compared to the Movement's essence. North or South, it was the same movement everywhere.

This website is devoted to the "Southern Freedom Movement," the Freedom Movement as it existed in the South. Not because the Northern wing of the Movement was unimportant — it was enormously important, — but because the Southern Movement was the part of the Movement that we participated in and know enough about to build this website. We've always hoped that activists from the Northern wing of the Movement will build a sister site.

Many textbooks and documentaries tell us that the Civil Rights Movement "began" in 1954 with the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v Board of Education, and "ended" with the call for "Black Power" in 1966 or with the assassination of Dr. King in 1968. But to us, our Freedom Movement grew out of all that came before and has never ended, but rather, like a living organism, it has evolved and flowered into struggles of many kinds that continue to this day.

For the purpose of this website, we have arbitrarily chosen 1951 as the start date of our phase of the long struggle for freedom, justice and equality because in that year a 16 year old high-school girl named Barbara Johns led her Virginia classmates out on a student strike to protest segregated schools. And we have arbitrarily concluded our coverage of the Southern Freedom Movement at the end of 1968 to mark the cross-over year in which the struggle evolved into new phases, and nation-wide campus uprisings against the Vietnam War brought us full circle to our student roots and the beginning of the next cycle.

For us, the heart and soul of our website is emphasizing the central role played by ordinary people transforming their lives through extraordinary courage. The Civil Rights Movement was above all a mass peoples' movement — people coming together to change their lives for themselves. But all too often that central fact has been quietly dropped out of history in favor of a "benevolent" court ruling, a few charismatic leaders, a handful of famous protests in a few well-known places, some tragic martyrs, and the gracious largess of magnanimous legislators.

Our purpose is to make sure that there is at least one place where the Movement story is told by those who actually lived it. We want to set the record straight. Without the courage, determination, and activity of hundreds of thousands of men and women of all ages in cities, towns, and hamlets across the South (and the nation) there would have been no Civil Rights Movement, no famous leaders, no court rulings, no new laws, and no change.

In addition to documenting the Southern Freedom Movement by telling it like it was and testifying to what we did and what it meant to us, this website is also a place to begin renewing the ties that once bound us together in a beloved community, a place for finding lost friends, and a tool for helping fellow veterans in need. And it is a living memorial for our fallen comrades.

To meet this mission, we provide:

  • Veterans Roll Call. A section of the site where we can post information about ourselves, — where and when and what we did in the Movement, where we've gone and what we've done and thought since, what we've achieved, milestones we've passed, and how old friends can reach us.
  • Speakers List A list of Freedom Movement veterans available for speaking engagements. Schools, churches, youth groups, and other organizations who wish to hear first-hand from those who participated in the Civil Rights Movement can use this list to directly contact Freedom Movement veterans.
  • In Memory. A section where we can post our testimony and memories of brothers and sisters who have passed on. We may not have an Arlington Cemetery or an Eternal Flame in Washington, but we can build a remembrance of word and thought more meaningful than dead stone and mute grass.
  • History & Timeline of the Southern Freedom Movement from 1951-1968. A chronological series of articles by Bruce Hartford describing events whether they were famous or not.
  • Articles. A collection of articles about the Freedom Movement by Movement veterans. Most of these articles were written and published during the struggle.
  • Letters & Reports From the Field. Letters home & letters to publications, memos & reports to headquarters, and diary entries from freedom workers in the field.
  • Our Stories. A collection of transcribed oral histories, interviews, personal narratives, and statements by Movement veterans.
  • Our Thoughts. A collection of essays, thoughts and analyses of the Movement and current events by Freedom Movement veterans.
  • Discussions. Transcripts of group discussions by Freedom Movement veterans on Movement-related topics.
  • Photo Album. Our collection of photos from our Movement.
  • Documents. A large online compilation of original source documents and publications from the Southern Freedom Movement.
  • Poetry. A collection of poems about the Freedom Movement by civil rights workers and others.
  • Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). Where Movement veterans can post their answers to the questions most often asked by students interested in the Civil Rights Movement.
  • Web Links. A compilation of links to web-based resources about the Civil Rights Movement.
  • Bibliography An extesive list of books, music, and videos about and from the Southern Freedom Movement.
  • Your Thoughts. A blog where visitors can enter their comments about the Southern Freedom Movement and this site.

If you were active with CORE, NAACP, SCLC, SNCC, SCEF, SSOC, Delta Ministry, Deacons for Defense, local Movement organizations, or some other group active in the Southern Freedom Movement, we ask you to contribute yourself. Please consider adding your name, history, and testimony to the Civil Rights Movement Veterans Roll Call. And if the spirit moves, add a tribute for one who has moved on.

Note that our site is for documenting what we did and experienced in the Southern Freedom Movement, what it meant to us, what we learned from it, and how we view it today. We hope our site can contribute to rebuilding the beloved community that we once shared. Therefore, personal attacks on named individuals, or carrying on old vendettas, is not appropriate.

We also need your help to reach other sisters and brothers. Please tell those you know from the Movement about this site. является образовательным некоммерческим ресурсом ,созданным   с целью  изучение политических исторических фактов и политических деятелей и разнохарактерных государственных и межгосударственных организаций.

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